China ramps up the rhetoric on climate change

China ramps up the rhetoric on climate change

Senior Chinese official warns that climate-related temperature rises could seriously affect the country’s harvests and major infrastructure projects.

LONDON, 28 March, 2015 − Zheng Guogang, head of the China Meteorological Administration, says future variations in climate are likely to reduce crop yields and damage the environment.

In one of the strongest official statements to date on the challenges faced, Zheng told China’s official Xinhua news agency that climate change could have a “huge impact” on the country, with a growing risk of climate-related disasters.

“To face the challenges from past and future climate change, we must respect nature and live in harmony with it,” Zheng said. “We must promote the idea of nature, and emphasise climate security.”

Violent rainstorms

Zheng said temperature rises in China over the past century have been higher than the global average. He warned that river flows and harvests are likely to suffer as the incidence of droughts and violent rainstorms across the country increases.

In turn, this could affect major infrastructure projects such as the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze river, the biggest hydroelectric scheme in the world.

Other projects that could be hit by changes in climate are the rail line between the northwestern province of Qinghai and Tibet − the highest railway line in the world, and partly built on permafrost − and a massive project aimed at bringing water from the south of China to the parched towns and cities of the north.

“The safe production and operation of major strategic projects is facing a serious threat,” Zheng said.

Although millions of people in China have benefited from years of double-digit economic growth, damage to the environment has been extensive and has become a major social, health and political issue.

“To face the challenges from past and future climate change, we must respect nature
and live in harmony with it”

China is now the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases − largely due to its continued reliance on coal for power generation.

There are frequent public protests about the state of the environment, particularly water and air pollution. In Beijing and several other cities, air pollution frequently exceeds internationally-recognised health safety limits.

The authorities are taking various measures to tackle the country’s considerable environmental problems, but they are nervous about public protests on the environment getting out of control.

Earlier this month, “Under the Dome” – a documentary on China’s pollution, made by one of the country’s leading investigative reporters − was taken down from the internet by the authorities after having been viewed by an estimated 100 million people.

Green development

Under China’s present five-year plan, which started in 2011, there is a focus on the need to encourage “green, cyclical and low-carbon development”.

The plan claims: “These actions will increase the strategic position of combating climate change in China’s overall economic and social development.”

In an effort to improve its environment and meet international obligations to cut emissions, China is in the midst of a renewable energy programme costing billions of dollars.

Late last year, Beijing announced for the first time a date when the country’s emissions would peak – 2030 – and then taper off in the years following.

China is also involved with the US and other countries in a wide range of energy-saving research projects aimed at combating climate change. – Climate News Network

Share This:

Eyes in the sky see seas rising alarmingly faster

Eyes in the sky see seas rising alarmingly faster

Scientists analysing sophisticated satellite data warn that rises in sea level more rapid than expected are increasing threats to coastal cities and food security.

LONDON, 27 March, 2015 − Satellite observations show that sea level rise may have been underestimated, and that annual rises are increasing.

A collaborative effort between maritime organisations and space agencies in measuring sea level rise has come to the conclusion that it has been increasing by 3.1 millimetres a year since 1993 – higher than previous estimates.

The evidence is growing from a number of recent studies of the ice caps that sea level rise is accelerating, posing a threat to many of the world’s largest and most wealthy cities − most of which are also important ports.

Many of these in the developing world have little or no protection against rising sea levels. Some in Europe – such as London and Rotterdam − already have flood barriers to protect areas below high tide or storm surge level, but  these will need to be replaced and raised in the next 30 years.

Delta areas in Egypt, Vietnam, Bangladesh and China – vital to each of the nation’s food supply – are already losing land to the sea.

Difficult to measure

One of the problems scientists have had in getting accurate worldwide data is that the sea does not rise evenly around the globe. This, added to the fact that in some places the land is sinking and in other places is rising, makes exact information difficult to measure from tide gauges.

Since 1991, it has been possible to measure the surface of the oceans across the entire globe by using satellite altimetry, whereby the satellite emits a signal towards the ocean’s surface and receives the reflected echo. The sea level is calculated from the round-trip time between the satellite and the sea surface and the position of the satellite along its trajectory.

While the data from tide gauges provides information about local changes relative to the land, the use of altimeter satellites enables the recording of data on a global basis.

Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, a scientist specialising in physical and satellite geodesy at the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, uses these and other satellite geodetic observation data in her research.

She is working with the European Space Agency and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and in close consultation with the German Federal Institute of Hydrology and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency of Germany.

This lends credibility to the report that European coastal cities are not sufficiently prepared for the threats that climate change poses

The increase of around 3.1mm per year since 1993 indicates a marked rise in the average sea level when compared to previously recorded values, which show a sea level rise of between 1mm and 2mm per year in the 20th century.

In its fifth Assessment Report (AR5, 2013), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted a further increase in the global sea level of 30cm to 70cm by the end of the 21st century, based on a scenario involving a medium rate of global warming.

The report predicted that increases will not be even, but will have a greater impact on some regions than on others. The result could be coastal flooding and rising groundwater levels – an outlook that makes it essential to have a reliable data basis for dealing with the dangers this poses.

Protecting coasts from the rising seas will require considerable adaptations, particularly in such low-lying coastal regions as the North Sea coast of Germany and the many low-lying islands in the tropics.

Another aspect of the work with satellites is measuring ocean density to see how much water expansion − because of warming − is leading to sea level rise. A direct estimation of mass changes in the Mediterranean Sea show expansion to be the cause of an average sea level rise of about 2.1mm per year since 1993.

According to the IPCC, about 35% of the sea level increase between 1993 and 2010 was the result of thermal expansion, and the rest was due to melting ice and increasing run-off from land. But the latest observation shows this may not be true of the Mediterranean.

Too cautious

There is wide debate about whether the IPCC estimates of sea level rise have been too cautious, suggesting that the sea level will rise more than a metre this century – and some have even suggested that the rise could be two metres.

This is mainly because there has been uncertainty about how much of the huge icecap in Greenland, and most of all in Antarctica, would contribute to sea level rise by 2100 – if at all.

Research published since the IPCC estimates were made show that both icecaps will be large net contributors to sea level rise, and possibly much quicker than previously thought.

This lends credibility to the report last week that European coastal cities are not sufficiently prepared for the threats that climate change poses. The report − titled Underfunded, Unprepared, Underwater? Cities at Risk – is by the E3G non-governmental organisation, and it says governments across the European Union are leaving their major cities exposed to danger from climate change, including floods, heat waves and sea level rise.

Since it takes an average of 30 years from planning to complete construction of a major flood barrier to protect a city, the report warns that the problem needs to be given urgent consideration and funding. – Climate News Network

Share This:

Heat-tolerant beans could help keep millions fed

Heat-tolerant beans could help keep millions fed

Plant researchers say new varieties of a tropical crop essential to people’s survival in Africa and Latin America can withstand the effects of global warming.

LONDON, 26 March, 2015 − Scientists believe they may have found how to safeguard a staple tropical crop, on which hundreds of millions of people depend, from the depredations of climate change.

They have discovered − through conventional breeding rather than genetic modification − 30 new “lines” (varieties) of beans that will thrive in the higher temperatures expected later this century, and which will pose a particular threat to harvests in Africa and Latin America.

The new “heat-beater” beans, an important source of protein for around 400 million people, have been identified by plant breeders with the CGIAR global agriculture research partnership.

Steve Beebe, a senior CGIAR bean researcher, announced at a conference in Ethiopia: “This discovery could be a big boon for bean production because we are facing a dire situation where, by 2050, global warming could reduce areas suitable for growing beans by 50%.

Worst-case scenario

“Incredibly, the heat-tolerant beans we tested may be able to handle a worst-case scenario where the build-up of greenhouse gases causes the world to heat up by an average of 4°C.

“Even if they can only handle a 3°C rise, that would still limit the bean production area lost to climate change to about 5%. And farmers could potentially make up for that by using these beans to expand their production of the crop in countries such as Nicaragua and Malawi, where beans are essential to survival.”

Dr Beebe told the Climate News Network: “So far, so good. Some of the lines are also drought-tolerant, and some are resistant to Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus.

“We are taking these beans into a new environment that we don’t know from the bean perspective. . . Will we find more surprises?

“There are two caveats. First, so far the best lines are small red types for Central America and parts of East Africa, so we have a long road to improve a range of grain types, colours, etc.

“The other issue is that we are taking these beans into a new environment that we dont know from the bean perspective. We have seen that a soil pathogen, pythium, is more severe. Will we find more surprises?”

Rising heat as climate change intensifies is expected to disrupt bean production in central and South American countries, including Nicaragua, Haiti, Brazil and Honduras. African countries thought to be at risk are principally Malawi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, followed by Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.

Many of the new heat-tolerant beans developed by the CGIAR scientists are “crosses” of the common bean − which includes pinto, white, black, and kidney beans − and the tepary bean, a hardy survivor cultivated since pre-Columbian times in what is now part of northern Mexico and the southwest US.

Highly nutritious

Beans are often called the “meat of the poor”. They are highly nutritious, providing not only protein but fibre, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, and other micronutrients. In addition to heat tolerance, CGIAR researchers are also breeding lines with a higher iron content, in an effort to tackle malnutrition.

The new beans are the result of CGIAR’s work to develop new crop varieties that can thrive in drastic weather extremes, based on research in its “genebanks”, which preserve the world’s largest seed collections of the most important staple crops.

The heat-beaters emerged from the testing of more than 1,000 bean lines − work that began as an effort to develop beans that could tolerate poor soils and drought.

The focus turned to heat-tolerance following a 2012 report from CGIAR scientists warning that heat was a much bigger threat to bean production than previously believed. − Climate News Network

Share This:

Deep concerns as climate impacts on Gulf Stream flow

Deep concerns as climate impacts on Gulf Stream flow

Ocean scientists find evidence of an increasing slowdown in the Atlantic’s “invisible river” that could seriously affect weather and sea levels in the US and Europe.

LONDON, 25 March, 2015 − Climate scientists have once again confirmed an alarming slowdown in the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean − the process that drives the current that warms Europe, and powers the planetary climate.

And this time, they are prepared to say that the changes are recent − and may be linked to global warming.

The Atlantic Conveyor is a great invisible river that flows in two directions at the same time. The equatorial surface waters − warm, and therefore less dense − flow towards the north in the form of the Gulf Stream. Around Greenland, the denser and colder Arctic waters sink to the ocean bottom and begin their progress towards the south.

It is the difference in temperatures that maintains the turnover and keeps the climate engine going.

As a consequence, the two-way traffic of warm and cold water redistributes heat around the planet and keeps Britain and maritime Europe in relatively mild conditions.

But as global average temperatures rise, and the Greenland ice sheet melts, ocean scientists have warned that the speed of the ocean turnover could be put at risk.

Greater weakening

Stefan Rahmstorf, an ocean physicist at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany, is lead author of a report in Nature Climate Change that says they now have evidence of a slowdown during the 20th century, and greater weakening since the first alarms 40 years ago about the possible effects of greenhouse emissions.

“It is conspicuous that one specific area in the North Atlantic has been cooling in the past hundred years, while the rest of the world heats up,” Professor Rahmstorf says. “Now we have detected strong evidence that the global conveyor has indeed been weakening in the past hundred years, particularly since 1970.”

The paradox of the Atlantic current is that, in a warmer world, it could slow down or halt, which would deliver uncomfortable consequences for maritime Europe.

Fears of such an effect provided the scenario for the 2004 climate disaster movie, The Day After Tomorrow, which predicated a frozen Britain and a glaciated US.

“Now we have detected strong evidence that the global conveyor has indeed been weakening in the past hundred years, particularly since 1970”

No such extreme outcome was ever likely, but the Gulf Stream certainly makes a big difference to Britain. A former UK chief scientist once calculated that it delivered 27,000 times the warmth that Britain’s power stations could supply and, as a consequence, the UK is on average 5°C warmer than it might be, given its latitude.

Strength of current

At a number of points in the last two decades, researchers have wondered about the strength of the Atlantic current, but since systematic oceanographic record-keeping began only relatively recently, they had no way of distinguishing between a natural oceanic cycle and real change.

So the Potsdam team used all available data, and “proxy temperatures” derived from ice-cores, tree-rings, coral, and ocean and lake sediments, to reconstruct the story of the Atlantic current − and, in particular, the phenomenon called the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) − for the last 1,000 years.

The changes happening now have no precedent since 900 AD, they say. And the increasingly rapid melting of the Greenland icecap – bringing an increased flow of water that is less saline and also less dense, and therefore less likely to sink − could disturb the circulation.

The consequences of all this could, they say, “contribute to further weakening of the AMOC” in the coming decades.

Atlantic Conveyor: a graph of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Image: Stefan Rahmstorf/PIK

Atlantic Conveyor: a graph of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
Image: Stefan Rahmstorf/PIK

This is not the first such alarm. The same weakening was identified last year, but at the time researchers could not be sure they were not looking at a natural fluctuation.

Now they are sure, and they suspect that the cooling of the north Atlantic that they now observe is even stronger than most computer simulations have so far predicted.

“Common climate models are underestimating the change we’re facing, either because the Atlantic overturning is too stable in the models or because they don’t properly account for the Greenland ice sheet melt, or both,” says one of the co-authors, Michael Mann, professor of meteorology at Pennsylvania State University in the US.

Climate predictions

“That is another example where observations suggest that climate model predictions are in some respects still overly-conservative when it comes to the pace at which certain aspects of climate change are proceeding.”

Another of the authors, Jason Box, professor of glaciology at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, adds that “the human-caused mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet appears to be slowing down the Atlantic overturning − and this effect might increase if temperatures are allowed to rise further”.

The stakes are high. If the Atlantic conveyor system continues to weaken, ocean ecosystems will change, fishing communities will be affected, and some coastal cities – such as New York and Boston in the US − could be hit by additional regional sea level rises.

The 2004 Hollywood version – promoted with a huge poster of New York’s Statue of Liberty all but covered by ice – is not likely to happen. But if the ocean circulation weakens too much, there could be a relatively rapid and difficult-to-reverse change in the world’s climate system.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that there is a one-in-10 chance of this “tipping point” happening within the 21st century.

But the evidence from the Potsdam team is now likely to prompt other climate scientists to go back to their calculations and re-evaluate the risk. – Climate News Network

Share This:

Climate is now main worry for conservation group

Climate is now main worry for conservation group

The devastating effects of a changing climate have become the biggest challenge faced by a leading protector of the UK countryside.

LONDON, 24 March, 2015 − The head of one of the UK’s best-known conservation groups says the greatest threat to its work is now climate change.

Dame Helen Ghosh, director-general of the National Trust, told BBC Radio that there is devastation of wild Britain and the creatures that live there. “Who would have thought that the house sparrow and hedgehog were going to become rare?” she said.

“For the future and we see this on our coastline, in our countryside, even in our houses climate change, we think, is the big threat to us.”

The Trust is the charity responsible for the care of countryside and historic houses across England, Wales and Northern Ireland (a separate body does the work in Scotland).

It is also one of Britain’s largest landowners, with 600,000 acres (250,000 hectares) and 700 miles (1,125 km) of coastline in its care, and more than 300 historic buildings − all held in trust for the future.

About 20 million people go to the Trust’s houses and gardens annually, but 200 million visit its upland, lowland and coastal sites.

Destruction of habitats

Dame Helen said: “The main challenge to our conservation purpose is the destruction of habitats, of wildlife − the fact that we see precious species 60% in decline.”

She suggested that, apart from climate, the other cause of that was intensive land management.

When it comes to recognising the risks of a warming world, Dame Helen is certainly well qualified. As a former leading civil servant, one of her last jobs before joining the Trust was to head the UK government’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, which at that time had climate change as one of its responsibilities.

As part of its efforts to help address climate change, Dame Helen said the Trust would be getting 50% of the energy it uses in its houses and properties from renewable sources by 2020.

For example, she said, there would be “lots of hydro schemes across the country, lots of biomass boilers” as part of the renewable energy policy. The Trust aims to reduce its own energy consumption by about 20%.

It will also be working with its own tenant farmers, she said, “to try to make sure that land is farmed in environmentally-friendly ways that we get production, and also the bees and the butterflies”. Climate News Network

Share This:

Changing weather patterns hit Pakistan’s crops

Changing weather patterns hit Pakistan's crops

Torrential rain and hailstorms have raised fears that Pakistan’s winter crops yield could be seriously depleted – and global warming is the likely culprit.

Islamabad, 23 March, 2015 − Anxious farmers in Pakistan waited for weeks for the rains to arrive – but when the skies finally opened, the downpour was so intense it destroyed crops and put the harvest in jeopardy.

“We weather scientists are really in shock, and so are farmers, who have suffered economic losses due to crop damage,” says Muzammil Hussain, a weather forecasting scientist at the Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD).

“The wind from the southeast has carried moisture from the Arabian Sea. Normally, the northeast wind brings rain during winter, and the southeast wind brings monsoon rains in summer. But the pattern has changed this year because of what is believed to be global warming.”

Unusually heavy

Farmers across much of Pakistan plant winter crops of wheat, oilseed and potato late in the year and wait for rains to water the land. This year, the rains arrived more than three weeks late and were unusually heavy, accompanied by violent hailstorms. Along with the rains, temperatures also dropped.

Ibrahim Mughal, chairman of the Pakistan Agri Forum, says excessive moisture due to heavy bouts of late rain is likely to lead to outbreaks of fungus on crops, and production could be halved.

“If the rains come a month ahead of the harvesting time [April to mid-May], it is always disastrous,” he says. “It can hit production for a crop such as wheat by between 20% and 30%, and if the rain is accompanied by hailstorms and winds then the losses can escalate to more than 50%.”

Arif Mahmood, a former director general at PMD, says the onset of winter across much of Pakistan is being delayed by two to three days every year, and there is an urgent need for farmers to adapt to such changes.

“If the rains come a month ahead of the harvesting time, it is always disastrous”

“Over recent years, winter has been delayed by 25 to 30 days, and also the intensity of the cold has increased, which has affected almost every field of life − from agriculture to urban life.”

This year has also been marked by abrupt changes in temperature. Ghulam Rasul, a senior scientist at PMD, says big swings in temperature are likely to add to the problems being faced by millions of farmers in Pakistan.

“The average temperature during the first two weeks [of March] was between 11 and 13 degrees Celsius, but now it’s on a continuous upward trend and has reached 26˚C over the space of two days,” he reports.

“The winter rains in the north and central area of Pakistan, and the sudden rise and fall in temperature, are related to climate change.”

Serious damage

Similar storms and late winter rains have also caused serious damage across large areas of northern India.

The states of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra – the two most populous states in the country – have been particularly badly hit.

In Maharashtra, snow and landslides have blocked roads and cut off towns and villages.

In Uttar Pradesh, there are fears that more than 50% of the wheat crop has been lost in the eastern part of the state. – Climate News Network

Share This:

Threat to marine life adds to California’s woes

Threat to marine life adds to California’s woes

Unusually high water and air temperatures off the US West Coast as climate patterns shift mean bad news for sea lions, sea birds and the fishing industry.

LONDON, 22 March, 2015 – California, currently in the grip of a devastating drought and facing an increasingly parched future, has just been dealt another blow. Not only is the land less productive, but the state’s fisheries could also be about to feel the heat.

A new report warns that the climate seems to be shifting to warmer, less productive conditions. And that’s bad news for seabirds, salmon, sea lions − and sea fishermen.

At play, according to the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration Regional Fisheries Science Centres, is the effect of unusually high coastal water and air temperatures over the last year, and changes in the California Current that washes the West Coast of the US.

The consequence is a dip in what ecologists call “primary productivity” – in this case, the tiny copepods and other microscopic creatures that are the first level of the food chain.

Higher death rates

This means less for salmon and other marine species to eat, and higher death rates among sea lion pups in Southern California, and among sea birds on the Washington and Oregon coasts.

Commercial fisheries so far have been good, but California’s fishermen have begun to specialise, and could see catches fluctuate and revenues fall as their target species start to feel the effects.

Toby Garfield, director of environmental research atthe NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Centre, says: “We are seeing unprecedented changes in the environment.”

John Stein, who directs the Northwest Fisheries Science Centre, adds: “We’re seeing some major environmental shifts taking place that could affect the ecosystem for years to come. We need to understand and consider their implications across the ecosystem, which includes communities and people.”

The changes are partly cyclic: the sea surface temperatures are at record heights, and these have combined with shifts in meteorological cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation.

“We’re seeing some major environmental shifts taking place that could affect the ecosystem for years to come”

The consequence is that the normal upwelling of deep cold waters has weakened in recent years, and so has the supply of nourishing copepods. Sea lion pups and a species of seabird called Cassin’s auklet have been found dying and emaciated, which suggests problems with the food supply.

Since 2014, blobs of warm water have been observed in the Gulf of Alaska and all the way down the coast, and these conditions tend to be accompanied by lower productivity.

In the past, this has meant poorer catches of salmon, anchovy and squid, although better catches of sardines, tuna and marlin. But lately, both anchovy and sardine hauls have been at lower levels.

Double jeopardy

Salmon in particular face double jeopardy in California. Not only is the food supply in the sea threatened, but low snowfalls and greater drought mean that the rivers up which the salmon jump to spawn are less hospitable.

The California drought, the worst in the state’s history, has been tentatively linked to global warming. The changes in the California Current may be a coincidence of natural cycles.

Reports such as these are intended to alert communities to changing conditions. They are not so much prescriptions for doom as practical warnings of potential problems ahead. But the tone may well have become more urgent.

“We are in some ways entering a situation we haven’t seen before,” says Cisco Werner, who directs the Southwest Fisheries Science Centre at La Jolla. “That makes it all the more important to look at how these conditions affect the entire ecosystem.” – Climate News Network

Share This:

Earth at risk in new epoch ruled by destructive humans

Earth at risk in new epoch ruled by destructive humans

Scientists warn that our fate is in our own hands as humans now control almost every aspect of the planet, on a scale akin to the great forces of nature.

LONDON, 21 March, 2015 − Nature has been replaced by humans as the driving force behind changes on the planet − and we need to take urgent action if we are to avoid our own destruction.

This is the view of two scientists – including a Nobel prize winner − who support the theory that the planet has entered a new Anthropocene epoch that has succeeded the Holoscene, the  current geological warm period that began at the end of the ice age 11,500 years ago.

It is not a new concept − the name Anthropocene was coined 15 years ago by American ecologist Eugene F. Stoermer to describe how humans had taken over from nature to decide the planet’s future − but the authors of a new paper believe they have shown that it is now a frightening reality.

Paul Cruzten, the 1995 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, in Mainz, Germany, and Stanislaw Waclawek, researcher in the Department of Nanomaterials in Natural Sciences at the Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic, make their case in the paper published in the new Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology.

Human footprint

The article claims that the negative impact of the human footprint ensures a gradual destruction of the Earth, “Our survival fully depends on us,” Cruzten says.

The scientists claim that there is overwhelming evidence that what they term “man, the eroder” now transforms all Earth system processes. They offer this list in support of their argument:

  • Excessively rapid climate change, so that ecosystems cannot adapt.
  • The Arctic ocean ice cover is thinner by approximately 40% than it was 20-40 years ago.
  • Ice loss on land is causing the rising sea levels.
  • Overpopulation (a fourfold increase in the 20th century alone).
  • Increasing demand for freshwater.
  • Releases of nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere, resulting in high surface ozone layers.
  • Loss of agricultural soil through erosion.
  • Loss of phosphorous (dangerous depletion in agricultural regions).
  • Melting supplies of phosphate reserves (leading to serious reduction in crop yield).

The paper begins: “Humankind actions are exerting increasing effect on the environment on all scales, in a lot of ways overcoming natural processes.

“During the last 100 years, human population went up from little more than one billion to six billion, and economic activity increased nearly 10 times between 1950 and the present time.”

Industrial activity

In a series of graphics, the two scientists show how the growth of population, industrial activity and, above all, the release of greenhouse gases are causing chaos in nature and threatening our existence.

The paper says: “Taking into account these and many other major and still growing footprints of human activities on Earth and atmosphere, without any doubt we can conclude that we are living in new geological epoch named the Anthropocene.”

Cruzten warns: “This ensures a gradual destruction of the Earth. For the sake of our children and grandchildren, we must change course.” – Climate News Network

Share This:

Powerful wind blows through US energy sector

Powerful wind blows through US energy sector

Wind power in the US now generates enough electricity for more than 11 million homes, but it needs government support for further growth.

LONDON, 20 March, 2015 − The wind turbines are turning across America, and a major report by the US Department of Energy (DOE) says the wind energy sector now supplies 4.5% of the nation’s electricity.

Given the right energy policies and investment in infrastructure, that figure could increase to 10% by 2020 and to 35% by 2050, the DOE predicts.

That will not only benefit tens of thousands of workers who will be employed in one of the US’s fastest-growing industries. It’s also good news for the climate, and will help preserve increasingly precious water supplies.

“Deployment of wind technology for US electricity generation provides a domestic, sustainable and essentially zero carbon, zero pollution and zero water-use US electricity resource,” the DOE says.

Impressive growth

The rate of growth of wind power in the US has been impressive. In 2011 alone, nearly 3,500 turbines went up across the country. And the Natural Resources Defence Council says that a typical 250 megawatt wind farm − around 100 turbines − will create 1,073 jobs over the lifetime of the project.

The DOE says costs of wind power are dropping, while reliability and other issues are being sorted out. “Wind generation variability has a minimal and manageable impact on grid reliability and costs,” the report says.

Texas is the top wind power state, followed by Iowa, California and Oklahoma. At the end of 2013, the US had 61 gigawatts (GW) installed − up from 25 GW in 2009.

The aim is to increase those figures to 113 GW by 2020, to 224 GW by 2030, and to more than 400 GW by 2050.

The DOE says that if these plans are realised, the emission into the atmosphere of more than 12 gigatonnes of climate changing greenhouse gases (GHG) will be avoided.

“Pairing this homegrown resource with continued technology innovation has made the US the home of the most productive wind turbines in the world”

“Wind deployment can provide US jobs, US manufacturing and lease and tax revenues in local communities to strengthen and support a transition towards a low-carbon US economy,” the report says.

The trouble is that there is considerable resistance to wind power in parts of the political establishment. The DOE report – while not directly accusing Washington of standing in the way of progress on wind − does say that “new tools, priorities and emphases” need to be set in place in order to achieve wind energy targets.

These include an urgent need for a large-scale infrastructure programme in order to build wind power transmission lines.

The American Wind Energy Association, (AWEA), body that represents the industry, calculates that about 900 miles of transmission lines need to be put in place each year up to 2050 if the DOE is to achieve its wind power goals.

Tax policies to encourage wind development are also required. A special Wind Production Tax Credit (PTC), which effectively gave subsidies to the wind industry of about $13 billion a year, was brought in 1992.

Receive subsidies

But when the tax credit came up for renewal in 2012, it was not retained in the tax code, and finally lapsed at the end of 2013, although the oil, gas, fracking and coal industries – all major GHG emitters − have continued to receive subsidies.

Political analysts say there is little likelihood that the PTC will be renewed by a legislature controlled by the Republican party – which is generally opposed to giving financial incentives to the renewable energy sector.

The elimination of tax breaks initially slowed growth in the construction of wind energy facilities, but the industry remains upbeat and says investors are still putting money into projects.

“The US is blessed with an abundant supply of wind energy,” the AWEA says. “Pairing this homegrown resource with continued technology innovation has made the US the home of the most productive wind turbines in the world.” – Climate News Network

Share This:

Growing threat to Amazon’s crucial carbon sink

Growing threat to Amazon’s crucial carbon sink

Massive new study shows that pressures on the Amazon rainforest mean it can no longer be relied on to soak up more CO2 from the atmosphere than it puts out.

LONDON, 19 March, 2015 − The Amazon rainforest, for so long one of the vital “green lungs” of the planet, is losing its capacity to absorb carbon from the atmosphere, according to new research.

Two decades ago, the forest drew down a peak of two billion tonnes of carbon dioxide each year from the atmosphere. Now, according to a massive new study in Nature journal by more than 90 scientists, the rate of withdrawal has fallen to around half that total.

Fossil fuel emissions from Latin American countries are now running at more than a billion tonnes of CO2. So the region is putting more greenhouse gas into the atmosphere than it is taking out.

The finding is ominous. The Amazon rainforest has always been a big item in the climate modellers’ carbon budget − the calculation of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels burned, set against the natural absorption of the same trace gases by the biosphere.

Unique research

The implication now is that the forest is no longer a carbon “sink” that that can be relied upon to take up a predictable proportion of fossil fuel emissions.

The conclusion is the outcome of a unique international research network’s 30-year study of 189,000 individual trees in 321 plots of forest dotted across six million square kilometres in eight South American countries. And it has revealed a huge surge in the rate of tree deaths across the Amazon basin.

Locations of Amazon forest plots studied. Image: Georgia Pickavance/RAINFOR

Locations of Amazon forest plots studied.
Image: Georgia Pickavance/RAINFOR

The Amazon is one of the wonders of the planet: its 300 billion trees, and 15,000 species, store one-fifth of all the carbon in the planet’s biomass.

The RAINFOR collaboration involves 57 organisations in 15 nations, and is dedicated to detailed study of the forest and the ecosystems that depend upon it.

“Tree mortality rates have increased by more than a third since the mid-1980s, and this is affecting the Amazon’s capacity to store carbon”

Researchers have repeatedly warned of the consequences of destroying rainforest through logging, land-clearance for plantation,  and other assaults upon the gigantic rainforest, but this finding is of a different magnitude altogether.

Roel Brienen, a geographer at the University of Leeds in England, and the lead author of the study, puts it bluntly: “Tree mortality rates have increased by more than a third since the mid-1980s, and this is affecting the Amazon’s capacity to store carbon.”

Carbon dioxide is not, of itself, the problem. Plants capture it with photosynthesis to build tissues and feed the animal kingdom. And, in a greenhouse world, more carbon dioxide should make vegetation more fertile, and more likely to soak up at least a proportion of the extra carbon dioxide from car exhausts and power station chimneys.

Spurt of growth

But the message from this latest study is that it doesn’t necessarily work out like that. The extra carbon dioxide stimulated a spurt of extra growth, and the trees lived faster, only to die sooner.

The problem has been compounded by drought and unusually high temperatures in the Amazon. The spurt in arboreal death rates began well before 2005, but droughts since then have killed millions of additional trees.

“Regardless of the causes behind the increase in tree mortality, this study shows that predictions of a continuing increase of carbon storage in tropical forests may be too optimistic,” Dr Brienen says.

“Climate change models that include vegetation responses assume that as long as carbon dioxide levels keep increasing, then the Amazon will continue to accumulate carbon. Our study shows that this may not be the case, and that tree mortality processes are critical in this system.” – Climate News Network

Share This: